What is an intelligent or functional material?
We have been used to traditional materials (wood, leather, wool ...) and experienced the revolution of plastics and composites. Here is that of intelligent materials which are able to change shape, color or conductivity according to their environment. Shape memory alloys, piezoelectric, magnetostrictive or electrorheological materials already have many applications.
Examples are given in the field of aerospace, automotive, medicine, robotics or building. But already, new intelligent materials are coming out of laboratories, more and more inspired by the properties of biological systems.